Aspen propagates itself primarily through root sprouts, and extensive clonal colonies are common. Other types of hardwood trees in American forests include: Walter Siegmund/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY 2.5, Jerzy Opioła/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 3.0, W.D. This single species' compatibility is fairly uncommon in the Quercus genus group. It can occur as far east as New England and southern Quebec where the soils are mesic with relatively high pH. It is an excellent landscaping tree. Quickly following the flowers come new green leaves which turn a dark, blue-green and are uniquely heart-shaped. The oak is popular due to an attractive pyramidal shape and straight, dominant trunk, even on older specimens and because of availability. Oaks can be trees or shrubs and are in the genus Quercus and the family Fagaceae. American elm is of little value as a forest product. Flowering dogwood is one of the most popular ornamental landscape trees in eastern North America. This tree makes a handsome shade tree. Hackberry is easily distinguished by its cork-like bark with wart-like protuberances. It grows moderately fast and produces acorns every 2 to 4 years that are used by wildlife for food. Winfield IL USA. The Latin "laurifolia" means laurel-leaved or having leaves like a laurel. Leaves and fruit. It is a choice fuel for smoking meats. Trees woods and wildlife Alder Swamp-dweller, water-lover. Silver maple is one of the most common hardwood trees found in the eastern United States. Cucumbertree is an excellent shade tree for parks and gardens and gets its common name for the color and shape of unique fruit that resembles a cucumber. Holly boughs and leaves are popular Christmas decorations and inseparably connected with the Christmas season. You can easily identify a hardwood from a conifer. Types of hardwood and softwood explored. The names "Box Elder" and "Boxelder Maple" are based on the similarity of its whitish wood to that of boxwood and the similarity of its pinnately compound leaves with those of some species of elder. Quercus virginiana has a squat and leaning form with a large diameter tapering trunk. Building & Renovating Building 101: Types of Philippine Hardwood Buying furniture or building a house? Native Americans used the wild birch's boiled sap as a sweetener similar to maple syrup, and the inner bark as a survival food. The white oak family members also include the bur oak, chestnut oak, and Oregon white oak. The name quaking aspen references the quaking or trembling of the leaves that occur in even a slight breeze due to the flattened petioles. Overcup oak acorns, showing the nut largely enclosed by the acorn cup. Butternut is seriously threatened by an introduced canker disease called Melanconis. Widely available U.S. softwood trees include cedar, fir, hemlock, pine, redwood … Hackberry is not an important timber tree. Here are some of the most common hardwood trees found in North America, along with their scientific names. The native sycamore has a grand branch display and its bark is unique among all trees - you can always identify a sycamore just by looking at the bark. Eastern cottonwood typically lives 70 to 100 years. The wood is extremely hard, resistant to rot and longlasting, making it prized for fence posts and small watercraft. Paulownia has a tropical look with very large catalpa-like leaves although the two species are not related. It has been called the "humming tree.". Hardwoods that grow mainly in the tropics include lauan, ebony, teak and mahogany. Shellbark hickory nuts are the largest of all hickory nuts and are sweet and edible. ), elm (Ulmus spp.) Live oak is a symbolic tree of the Deep South. These forests are found worldwide and are located in either temperate or tropical ecosystems. The wood from hardwood trees tends to be harder because the trees grow at a slower rate, giving the wood its greater density. The avenue of live oaks at Oak Alley Plantation in Vacherie, Louisiana, planted in the early 18th century. Pecan production is a multi-million dollar business and one of North America's favorite nuts. Acer macrophyllum (bigleaf maple or Oregon maple) is a large deciduous tree in the genus Acer. Internet Archive Book Images/Wikimedia Commons. Look for the star-shaped leaf as foliage grows in the spring and look for the dried seed balls in and under the tree. It is one of the few commercially important species found on poorly drained clay flats and low bottoms of the Gulf Coastal Plain and north in the Mississippi and Red River Valleys. Hardwood trees typically produce denser wood than softwood trees and are often sought out for furniture making, construction and to make musical instruments, such as clarinets. Oak trees are hardwood trees that are common in North America and Europe. Hardwood Tree Plantings provide wildlife habitat, aesthetic values, and protection of the soil from erosion. A favored shade tree, willow oak is widely planted as an ornamental. The most common species in North America are oaks, maple, hickory, birch, beech and cherry. Bitternut hickory is probably the most abundant and most uniformly distributed of all the hickories. It is native to western North America, mostly near the Pacific coast, from southernmost Alaska south to southern California. Some names of hardwood trees, which are broad-leaf trees… The wood is superior to most red oaks, but it is mixed indiscriminately with other red oak lumber and used for the same products. Bitternut hickory grows in moist mountain valleys along streambanks and in swamps. This not only benefits the tree itself but also many other plants growing around it. It is a "soft hardwood tree" meaning its wood is less dense than others on this list and is often used in construction frames. The name White ash derives from the blueish white undersides of the leaves. All trees in Canada can be distinguished as being a conifer or deciduous tree. Black cherry is prone to storm damage with branches breaking easily but any resulting decay progresses slowly. (Peter Stevens/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY 2.0), Derek Ramsey/derekramsey.com/Wikimedia Commons/GFDL 1.2, (United States Department of Agriculture/Wikimedia Commons). Slippery elm is reputedly less susceptible to Dutch elm disease than other North American elms but is severely damaged by the Elm Leaf Beetle. Eastern cottonwood has fast growth and a spreading root system that will control erosion but will also damage pavement and clog sewers. American basswood is dominant in the sugar maple-basswood association most common in western Wisconsin and central Minnesota. Not necessarily. The Angel Oak near Charleston, South Carolina, is a live oak that has been determined to be the oldest tree in the eastern United States at 1400 years. Yellow poplar or tulip poplar is the tallest hardwood tree in North America with one of the most perfect and straight trunks in the forest. Hardwood is contrasted to softwood, which comes from conifers, cone bearing seed plants. It can be saved for planting in wet areas or where nothing else will thrive. Commercial overcup oak varies extremely with every site, fire damage, and degree of insect and decay defect. Hardwood trees have broad leaves. It is usually too contorted and knotty to be of value as a timber tree. Dozens of red maple varieties have been developed and the tree is prized for its fall color. A lot of that popularity has been challenged because of iron-deficiency chlorosis, persistent brown leaves on the tree into the winter, and a ragged look with the stubby twig "pins" that stand out and is a negative to some. Most are deciduous and lose all their leaves over a short annual fall drop. A North American custom is to use holly and mistletoe for decorating of homes and churches. Acer rubrum or red maple is one of the most common and widespread deciduous trees of eastern North America. As a young man, it is reported that Abraham Lincoln spent a lot of time splitting rails and fence posts from black locust logs. ), oak (Quercus spp. Most hardwoods are extremely durable and heavy, making them good for furniture construction since they hold up for many years. Mockernut hickory is very common and abundant southward through Virginia, North Carolina, and Florida but grows from Massachusetts south to northern Florida, west to Kansas and Texas and up to Iowa. This easily recognized and peeling birch bark is a winter staple food for moose even though the nutritional quality is poor. The tree has very little value as a forest product. Deciduous trees, like oaks, maples, and elms, shed their leaves in the fall and sprout new ones every spring. Hardwood cuttings are typically taken from older stems that are harvested during the dormant season. Red alder trees invade clearings or burned-over areas and form temporary forests. Oregon white oak is the only native oak in British Columbia and Washington and the principal one in Oregon. Among the most common hardwood shade trees are ash (Fraxinus spp. The large, three to six-inch long by two to three-inch-wide, shiny, dark green leaves turn bright yellow in fall and are quite noticeable in the northeastern United States. The Southern magnolia is the state tree of Mississippi and the state flower of Mississippi and Louisiana. This hickory is distinguished from other hickories by large leaves, large nuts and orange twigs. The alternate maple-looking leaves are large and also unique to those familiar with sycamore. The acorn or winter buds identify Nuttall oak, easily confused with pin oak (Q. palustris). Cherrybark oak (Q. pagodifolia) is a fairly common large tree of bottomland forests, similar to the upland Southern red oak (Q. falcata), of which it was formerly considered a variety. These trees will not shed their leaves during winter, and they bear The American beech is a shade-tolerant species, favoring the shade more than other trees, and commonly found in forests in the final stage of succession called a climax forest. and beech (Fagus spp.). Yellow birch thrives in moist woodlands and often seen on root stilts that have developed from seedlings that have grown on and over rotting stumps. Any oak with pointed, bristle-tipped leaf lobes belongs to the red oak group, including Northern red oak. Cultivars selected for superior fall color include 'Autumn Applause' and 'Autumn Purple.'. These are usually found in broad-leaved temperate and tropical forests. A good mature tree will produce commercial timber used for furniture and crates. Black cottonwood, also known as western balsam poplar or California poplar, is a deciduous broadleaf tree species native to the upper western North America. A few well-known hardwood species are oak, maple, and cherry, but many more trees share hardwood tree characteristics. Softwood comes from a conifer (cone-bearing) or evergreen trees, such as pine or spruce. S. albidum is a host plant for the spicebush swallowtail. Common persimmon is an interesting, somewhat irregularly shaped native small to medium tree. Simple leaves can be further divided into lobed and unlobed. Black locust attracts bees and is a major honey plant in the eastern United States. It is a large forest tree of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada (Ontario) but become smaller in the southern range. sylvatica) and swamp tupelo (var. Its hickory nut is edible and has a very sweet taste. Other common names are spotted oak, Schneck oak, Shumard red oak, southern red oak, and swamp red oak. Hardwoods are not always harder than softwoods, balsa wood being an example of this. Many kinds of wildlife eat the fruits and water tupelo is a favored honey tree. Scott Bauer/USDA Agricultural Research Servic/Bugwood.org/CC BY 3.0 US. The tree hates shade (intolerant) and best growth occurs in a sunny open location and a moist rich soil, common along stream banks in its native habitat. Sugar maple is a maple native to the hardwood forests of northeastern North America, from Nova Scotia west to southern Ontario, and south to Georgia and Texas. There are over 90 oak species in the United States. In fact, about 40 percent of American trees are in the hardwood category. It is now being replaced by better trees like London planetree (Platanus X acerfolia) and Japanese zelkova (Zelkova serrata). 16. Popular European and American hardwood trees are maple, oak, cherry, beech and ash. Shumard oak (Quercus shumardii) is one of the largest Southern red oaks. Let's take a look at the most common angiosperms, otherwise known as deciduous hardwoods. If you find a supply, you have found a nut with the highest oil content and highest food value of all the walnuts and hickories. Here is a list of the most common North American hardwood trees with links to their ranges, their identifying, and habitat descriptions, plus photos. Hardwoods have vessel elements that transport water throughout the wood; under a microscope, these elements appear as pores. Hardwood is wood from deciduous trees and broad-leaf evergreen trees. The wood resembles elm but is difficult to work, rots easily and is a bad choice for planting in the landscape. They are usually identifiable by their differences in habitats: black tupelo on light-textured soils of uplands and stream bottoms, swamp tupelo on heavy organic or clay soils of wet bottomlands. Most people think of the broad leaf forests of North America and Europe when they think of hardwoods, but there are a number of hardwood trees native to the warmer climates of Africa. Basswood flowers draw hordes of bees and other insects. Water oak is planted widely as a street and shade tree in southern communities. Young sassafras seedlings are usually unlobed but older trees add unique mitten-shaped leaves with two or three lobes on other leaves. This is usually visible at both microscopic level and at the surface — hardwoods tend to have broad leaves, while softwoods tend to have needles and cones. Wanted! It produces small (edible) berries that turn orange-red to dark purple. Hardwoods make good shade trees. Over time, red alders build up the soil with their copious litter and enrich it with nitrogen compounds formed by symbiotic bacteria that live in little nodules on their roots. Also known as Tulip Poplar and Yellow Poplar, this is one of Green ash is seriously threatened in some areas, particularly Michigan, by the emerald ash borer, a beetle introduced accidentally from Asia, to which it has no natural resistance. The name "yellow birch" reflects the color of the tree's distinctive bark. As a result, many areas today still have extensive groves of old beeches. The paulownia has been touted as growing very valuable wood under correct management strategies. These leaves can be single blade leaves or have multiple leaves attached to one stem. This oak is immediately recognized by rounded lobes plus the lobe tips never have bristles like red oak. Northern red oak is well adapted to periodic fires. It is also a good species to plant along margins of fluctuating-level reservoirs. American elm has long been very popular as a street or avenue tree but never really took to parks and cities. "Now you see why they are called BIG leaf maples.". trees beneficial to wildlife. Oxydendrum arboreum at Lake Hope State Park, Vinton County, Ohio, on the Furnace Trail. Black locust has nitrogen-fixing bacteria on its root system. Shrubs such as redtwig dogwood ( Cornus sericea , Zones 3–8), trees such as cottonwood ( Populus deltoides , Zones 2–9), and evergreens such as Rocky Mountain juniper ( Juniperus scopulorum , Zones 3–7) can by propagated with high success using this method. Because bitternut hickory wood is hard and durable, it is used for furniture, paneling, dowels, tool handles, and ladders. This Guide features 20 of the most abundant and most often used Hardwood species. ), birch (Betula spp. It is a commercially desirable tree and managed for various forest products. It is a moderately long-lived tree, with ages of up to 258 years known. The Guide to American Hardwood Species As a resource, American Hardwoods are abundant, renewing and sustainable, and an excellent choice for eco-effective design and building. Still, it has been planted in cities and on farms because of its rapid growth. The large acorns with hardened cups that enclose all or most of the nut are diagnostic. The less than "respectable" maple is not particularly desired in the landscape because of rapid trunk rotting, prolific sprouting and branch shedding. Still, the bark is important to wintering moose because of its sheer abundance. Rock elm or cork elm is a deciduous tree native primarily to the Midwestern United States and along the prairie and forest edge. Bigleaf maple is the only commercially important maple of the Pacific Coast region. Bruce Marlin/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 2.5. Softwood trees are conifers or cone bearing trees that include firs, cedar, spruce, pine, and redwood. Conifers are also known as softwoods. The tree is the largest and most important New World willow and is one of the first trees to bud in the spring. The name post oak refers to the use of the wood of this tree for fence posts. … While river birch's native habitat is wet ground, it will grow on higher land, and its bark is quite distinctive, making it a favored ornamental tree for landscape use. Juglans cinerea, commonly known as butternut or white walnut, is a species of walnut native to the eastern United States and southeast Canada. Sometimes you don’t really appreciate how thickly forested the area is until you travel to another part of the country. The yellow poplar tree has very unique leaves with four lobes separated by rounded notches. It is the largest native cherry and one of the most abundant wild fruit trees. Steve Nix is a natural resources consultant and a former forest resources analyst for the state of Alabama. American sycamore is a massive tree and can attain the largest trunk diameter of any of the eastern U.S. hardwoods. He is a member of the Society of American Foresters. Trees with superior genetics and located in a good growing environment.can potentially live 200 to 400 years. Both the post oak and the blackjack oak are the major trees of the "Cross Timbers" area in Texas and Oklahoma. The medium to large willow oak has unique willow-like foliage and is known for its rapid growth and long life. Forests, where a majority of their trees drop leaves at the end of the typical growing season, are called deciduous forests. Although variable in shape, all hardwood leaves have a distinct network of fine veins. Some may actually be softer than many coniferous softwoods. Water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica), is a large, long-lived tree that grows in southern swamps and flood plains where its root system is periodically underwater. Although American beech wood is heavy, hard, tough and strong, the tree is typically left during lumbering and often left uncut to grow. The eudicots include 1) herbaceous annuals that die at the end of each growing season after… Except for cleaning up the messy fruit if it falls on a patio or sidewalk, persimmon maintenance is quite easy and it could be planted more. Although these trees are often called hardwoods, wood hardness varies among the hardwood species. See more ideas about forest plants, trees to plant, shorea. The numerous uses of the wood of this timber-sized willow are furniture, doors, millwork, barrels, and boxes. All the red oaks, including Southern red oak, are the most prized hardwood species in the United States. Red alder stands are eventually succeeded by Douglas fir, western hemlock, and Sitka spruce. Sugar maple is an immensely important species to the ecology of many forests in North America. Silver maples produce a dense and aggressive root system that fuels its rapid growth. Bur oak typically grows in the open, away from a forest canopy. Kayaking among water tupelo trees at Finch Lake Campground, Louisiana. On the other hand, softwood comes from coniferous trees, which we call evergreens. Conifers are often called evergreens or needle-leaved trees (although there always exceptions). White oak is less favored than red oak because it is difficult to transplant and has a slow growth rate. Angel's Trumpet: These are the white, trumpet-shaped flowers that grow on vines. Steve Hurst/ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory/Wikimedia Commons, Steve Hurst/USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/Wikimedia Commons, (Robert H. Mohlenbrock/USDA SCS/Wikimedia Commons), (Plant Image Library/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0), (Linnaeus/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 3.0), (DavetheMage/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY 3.0). The most common North American tree is the red alder. Scroll over the materials below for a 'snap shot' of their properties and click to learn more. Pignut hickory (Carya glabra) is a common but not abundant species in the oak-hickory forest association in the Eastern United States. Tea is brewed from the bark of roots and leaves are used is as a thickener in soups and sauces. Sugar Maple is the major source of sap for making maple syrup and prized for furniture and flooring. 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